Biphenyl is used as an intermediate for synthesis of various pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of biphenyl. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated biphenyl were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and surface area analysis. The treated biphenyl showed decrease in intensity of XRD peaks as compared to control. Additionally, crystallite size was decreased in treated biphenyl by 16.82% with respect to control. The treated biphenyl (72.66ºC) showed increase in melting temperature as compared to control biphenyl (70.52ºC). However, the latent heat of fusion (∆H) of treated biphenyl was substantially changed by 18.75% as compared to control. Additionally, the treated biphenyl (155.14ºC) showed alteration in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control sample (160.97ºC). This showed the alteration in thermal stability of treated biphenyl as compared to control. Spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR and UV-visible) showed no alteration in chemical nature of treated biphenyl with respect to control. Surface area analysis through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET) analyzer showed significant alteration in surface area as compared to control. Overall, the result demonstrated that biofield has substantially affected the physical and thermal nature of biphenyl.
 Pagan A (2012) http://mustang.millersville.edu/~iannone/research/Pagan07.pdf (accessed 30.05.12).
 Jain ZJ, Gide PS, Kankate RS (2013) Biphenyls and their derivatives as synthetically and pharmacologically important aromatic structural moieties. Arab J Chem (In Press).
 Kumar JR, Jawahar J, Pathak DP (2006) Synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives: As anti-hypertensive agents. E J Chem 3: 278-285.
 Madhukar A, Kannappan N, Deep A, Kumar P, Kumar M, et al. (2009) Synthesis and antimicrobial studies of biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid 2-(Aryl)-4-oxo-thiazolidin-3-yl-amide. Int J Chem Tech Res 1: 1376-1380.
 Chaudhary AL, Sheppard DA, Paskevicius M, Pistidda, C, Dornheim M, et al. (2015) Reaction kinetic behaviour with relation to crystallite/grain size dependency in the Mg–Si–H system. Acta Mater 95: 244-253.
 Huot J, Liang G, Boily S, Van Neste A, Schulz R (1999) Structural study and hydrogen sorption kinetics of ball-milled magnesium hydride. J Alloys Compd 293-295: 495-500.
 Gross KJ, Spatz P, Zuttel A, Schlapbach L (1996) Mechanically milled Mg composites for hydrogen storage the transition to a steady state composition. J Alloys Compd 240: 206-213.
 Gerasimov KB, Konstanchuck IG, Chizhik SA, Bobet JL (2009) ‘‘Hysteresis’’ in interaction of nanocrystalline magnesium with hydrogen. Int J Hydrogen Energ 34: 1916-1921.
 Hanada N, Ichikawa T, Orimo SI, Fujii H (2004) Correlation between hydrogen storage properties and structural characteristics in mechanically milled magnesium hydride MgH2, J Alloys Compd 366: 269-273.
 Wronski Z, Varin RA, Chiu C, Czujko T, Calka A (2007) Mechanochemical synthesis of nanostructured chemical hydrides in hydrogen alloying mills. J Alloys Compd 434–435: 743-746.
 Zahra M, Farsi M (2009) Biofield therapies: Biophysical basis and biological regulations. Complement Ther Clin Pract 15: 35-37.
 Neuman MR (2000) Biopotential electrodes. The biomedical engg handbook: (2ndedn), Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC.
 Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of vanadium pentoxide powders. J Material Sci Eng S11: 001.
 Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RM (2013) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of silicon, tin and lead powders. J Material Sci Eng 2: 125.
 Trivedi MK, Patil S, Tallapragada RMR (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on the physical and thermal characteristics of aluminium powders. Ind Eng Manag 4: 151.
 Shinde V, Sances F, Patil S, Spence A (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and yield of lettuce and tomato. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 6: 100-105.
 Sances F, Flora E, Patil S, Spence A, Shinde V (2013) Impact of biofield treatment on ginseng and organic blueberry yield. Agrivita J Agric Sci 35: 22-29.
 Lenssen AW (2013) Biofield and fungicide seed treatment influences on soybean productivity, seed quality and weed community. Agricultural Journal 8: 138-143.
 Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and anatomical characteristics of Pogostemon cablin (Benth.). Biotechnology 11: 154-162.
 Trivedi MK, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC–13518] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions – An experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 4: 230-235.
 Trivedi MK, Patil S (2008) Impact of an external energy on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC–23715] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions: An experimental study. Internet J Alternative Med 6: 2.
 Trivedi MK, Bhardwaj Y, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bulbule A (2009) Impact of an external energy on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC–51299] in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and biochemical reactions – An experimental study. J Accord Integr Med 5: 119-130.
 Altekar N, Nayak G (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9.
 Paiva-Santos CO, Gouveia H, Las WC, Varela JA (1999) Gauss-lorentz size-strain broadening and cell parameters analysis of Mn doped SnO2 prepared by organic route. Materials Structure 6: 111-115.
 Zhang K, Alexandrov IV, Kilmametov AR, Valiev RZ, Lu K (1997) The crystallite-size dependence of structural parameters in pure ultrafine-grained copper. J Phys D Appl Phys 30: 3008-3015.
 Chaudhary AL, Sheppard DA, Paskevicius M, Webb CJ, Gray EM, et al. (2014) Mg2Si nanoparticle synthesis for high pressure hydrogenation. J Phys Chem C 118: 1240-1247.
 Chaudhary AL, Sheppard DA, Paskevicius M, Saunders M, Buckley C (2014) Mechanochemical synthesis of amorphous silicon nanoparticles. R Soc Chem Adv 42: 21979-21983.
 Karabacak M, Yilan E (2012) Molecular structure, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 13C and 1H NMR, UV), polarizability and first-order hyperpolarizability, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 4-methylbiphenyl-2-carbonitrile. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 87: 273-285.
 Pavia DL, Lampman GM, Kriz GS (2001) Introduction to spectroscopy. (3rdedn), Thomson Learning, Singapore.
 Mennucci B, Martinez JM (2005) How to model solvation of peptides? Insights from a quantum-mechanical and molecular dynamics study of N-methylacetamide. I. Geometries, infrared, and ultraviolet spectra in water. J Phys Chem B 109: 9818-9829.
 Bendz D, Tuchsen PL, Christensen TH (2007) The dissolution kinetics of major elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles. J Contam Hydrol 94: 178-194.
Cite this work
Researchers should cite this work as follows:
Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Rama Mohan Tallapragada, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Snehasis Jana. Characterization of Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Biphenyl. American Journal of Chemical Engineering. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 58-65. doi: 10.11648/j.ajche.20150305.11